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Material classification of plastic toys

2022-11-20

 
 
The safety of plastic toys is paramount, and when plastic toys inspection, understanding the characteristics of each material can help us make a more reasonable judgment. Toys can be classified into wood, plastic, rubber, metal, clay and sand, paper and plush cloth. The three main categories are wood, plastic and plush.
 
 
Let's take a look at the various materials of plastic toys.
 
The main materials of plastic toys are: polystyrene (PS), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene(ABS), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polycarbonate (PC), Polyethylene (PE), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate.
 
Polyurethane (EVA), Polyurethane (PU) and polyester (PET) materials have their own characteristics. Inappropriate plastic materials will affect the performance and safety of toys. We hope the following information will help you better understand the possible health risks of chemicals in plastics and how to pick safer and more sustainable toys for children.
 
 
 
 
 
1.   PS
 
PS is a relatively old plastic, after many years, its production process is relatively perfect. PS has good transparency (transmittance of 88%-92%) and surface gloss, easy staining, high hardness, good rigidity, in addition, there are good water resistance, chemical corrosion resistance and processing flow performance. Its main shortcomings are: brittle, low impact strength, easy to appear stress cracking, poor heat resistance and so on.
 
 
 
2.   ABS
 
It is a kind of raw materials easy to obtain, good comprehensive performance, cheap, widely used "tough, hard, rigid" material, in machinery, electrical, textile, automobile, aircraft, ships, children's toys and other industries are widely used. With good dimensional stability, the base particles can maintain a high degree of consistency in size. At the same time, ABS hardness and toughness is high, even at low temperature, will not become brittle (low temperature resistance -- 40°).
 
Three letters stand for "acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene" three substances. Because it has three kinds of composition, and gives it good performance; Acrylonitrile gives ABS resin chemical stability, oil resistance, certain stiffness and hardness; Butadiene improved its toughness, impact and cold resistance. Styrene gives it good dielectric properties and good processability.
 
 
 
3.   PVC
 
The most essential difference of PVC is that the plastic contains the element chlorine, so can not directly contact with drinking water or food, secondly because PVC plastic molecular chain polarity is too large, poor plasticity, so often need to add more than 40% of the plasticizer (plasticizer), often can not directly contact with drinking water or food.
 
It is one of the world's largest plastic products by volume. It is cheap and widely used in white or light yellow powder. According to different uses can be added to different additives, polyvinyl chloride plastics can show different physical and mechanical properties. A variety of hard, soft and transparent products can be made by adding appropriate plasticizer to polyvinyl chloride resin.
 
On October 27, 2017, polyvinyl chloride was included in the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization.
 
The most direct identification method of PVC:
 
Combustion method identification:
 
Softening or melting temperature range: 75~90°C;
 
Combustion condition: self-extinguishing after ignition;
 
Burning flame status: yellow under the green smoke; After the fire: out of the fire; Smell: Pungent and sour.
 
This method is the most simple and direct, generally as the first choice.
 
 
 
4.   PP
 
Polypropylene is a white waxy material with a transparent and light appearance. It has chemical resistance, heat resistance, electrical insulation, high strength mechanical properties and good high wear-resistant processing properties, which makes polypropylene since its appearance, it has been widely developed and applied in many fields such as machinery, automobiles, electronic appliances, construction, textile, packaging, agriculture, forestry and fishery and food industry.
 
Polypropylene has good mechanical properties, can be directly manufactured or modified to manufacture various mechanical equipment parts, such as manufacturing industrial pipes, agricultural water pipes, motor fans, infrastructure templates, etc. Modified polypropylene can be molded into bumper, scratch strip, car steering wheel, dashboard and interior decoration, greatly reduce body weight to achieve the purpose of energy saving. So pp is the most used plastic material to ride on cars.
 
 
5.   PC
 
PC is almost colorless glassy amorphous polymer with excellent optical properties. PC main performance defects are hydrolysis resistance stability is not high enough, sensitive to notch, organic chemical resistance, scratch resistance is poor, long-term exposure to ultraviolet light will yellow. Like other resins, PC is susceptible to erosion by some organic solvents.
 
PC material has flame retardant. Resistance to oxidation.
 
A. With high strength and elastic coefficient, high impact strength, wide range of temperature;
 
B. High transparency and free staining;
 
c. H.D.T. high;
 
D. Poor fatigue resistance;
 
e, good weather resistance;
 
F. Excellent electrical characteristics;
 
G. Tasteless, odorless and harmless to human health and safety;
 
H. Low shrinkage and good size stability.
 
 
 
6.   PE
 
Polyethylene is odorless, odorless, non-toxic, dull surface, milky waxy particles. Insoluble in water, slightly soluble in hydrocarbons, etc. Resistant to most acid and base erosion, small water absorption, at low temperature can still maintain soft, high electrical insulation.
 
 
7.   EVA
 
Compared with PE, EVA reduces the high crystallinity and improves the toughness, impact resistance, filler phase solubility and thermal sealing performance due to the introduction of vinyl acetate monomer in the molecular chain. It is widely used in the fields of foamed footwear, functional shed film, packaging mold, hot melt adhesive, wire and cable and toys. EVA resin also has many applications in toys, such as ride on cars wheel, seat and so on. PU
 
 
8.   PU
 
It has the characteristics of high strength, high wear resistance and solvent resistance. It is the main component of rubber compressed air tube
 
 
9.   PET
 
a. Good mechanical properties, impact strength is 3~5 times that of other films, good folding resistance.
 
b. Resistance to oil, fat, dilute acid, dilute alkali, and most solvents. c. Can be used in the temperature range of 55-60℃ for a long time, short-term use can be resistant to high temperature of 65℃, can be resistant to low temperature of -70℃, and high and low temperature has little impact on its mechanical properties.
 
d. Low permeability of gas and water vapor, and excellent resistance to gas, water, oil and odors.
 
e. High transparency, can block ultraviolet light, good gloss.
 
f. Non-toxic, tasteless, good hygiene and safety, can be directly used for food packaging.
 
 

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